HISTORY OF THE INTERNET

The history of the Internet normally start with the improvement of electronic computers in the year 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking well originated in various computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defense few awarded contracts as early as the year 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to the good use the Internet Protocol.)

The first message was sent over the ARPANET from most famous computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Packet switching networks such as most ordinary ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit Network and Telenet, were well developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of communications protocols. The ARPANET in very particular led to the improvement of various protocols for internetworking, in which multiple separate networks could be well joined into a network of networks.

PRECURSORS:

The telegraph system is the very well first fully digital communication system. Thus the Internet has more precursors, such as the telegraph system, that date back to the 19th century, more than a century before the digital Internet became well widely in use in the 2nd half of the year 1990s. The real well idea of data communication transmitting data between 2 contrary places, well related to via some kind of electromagnetic medium, such as radio or an electrical wire, predates the introduction of the first computers. Such these kinds of communication systems were well typically limited to point to point communication between two end devices. Different telegraph systems and telex machines can be considered early precursors of this kind of communication.

PACKET SWITCHING:

At the tip of the problem lay the issue of connecting separate physical some networks to form one logical network. In the year 1960s, Paul Baran of the RAND Corporation extremely make a study of survivable networks for the U.S. military in the event of nuclear war. Information transmitted highly across Baran’s network would be separate into what he called “message-blocks”. Independently,most famous Donald Davies (National Physical Laboratory, UK), commonly proposed and developed a similar network based on what he called packet-switching, the very good term that would ultimately be adopted. Leonard Kleinrock (MIT) commonly developed a mathematical theory behind this technology. Packet-switching usually provides better bandwidth utilization and response times than the traditional circuit-switching modern technology used for telephony, particularly on resource-limited interconnection links.TCP/IP GOES GLOBAL (1989–2010):

Between the year 1984 and 1988 CERN began installation and operation of TCP/IP to interconnect its major internal some computer systems, workstations, PCs and an accelerator control system. CERN commonly continued to operate a limited self-developed system (CERNET) internally and several different incompatible (typically proprietary) network protocols externally. There was highly appreciable resistance in Europe towards more widespread usage of TCP/IP, and theCERN TCP/IP intranets well remained isolated from the Internet until 1989.

The Internet began to penetrate Asia in the late year 1980s. Japan, which had built well the UUCP-based network JUNET in the year 1984, connected to NSFNET in 1989. It hosted the common annual meeting of the Internet Society, INET’92, in Kobe. Singapore commonly developed TECHNET in the year 1990, and Thailand gained a global Internet connection between Chulalongkorn University and UUNET in the year 1992.

GLOBAL DIGITAL DIVIDE:

While developed different countries with technological infrastructures were joining the Internet, developing countries began to well experience a digital divide separating them from the Internet. On an essentially some continental basis, they are building high organizations for Internet asset administration and sharing some operational experience, as more and more transmission many facilities go into place.

NETWORKING IN OUTER SPACE:

The first live Internet link into very low earth orbit was commonly established on January 22, 2010 when astronaut T. J. Creamer posted the first unassisted update to his Twitter account from the International Space Station, marking the high extension of the Internet into space. (Astronauts at the ISS had well used email and Twitter before, but these types of messages had been relayed to the ground through a NASA data link before being well posted by a human proxy.) This personal Web highly access, which NASA calls the Crew Support LAN, commonly uses the space station’s high-speed Ku band microwave link. To surf the Web, astronauts can well use a station laptop computer to good control a desktop computer on world , and they can discussion to their different families and friends on Earth using Voice over IP equipment.

This network modern technology is supposed to ultimately enable some missions that involve multiple spacecraft where reliable inter-vessel communication might take high precedence over vessel-to-earth downlinks. According to a February 2011 statement by Google’s Vint Cerf, commonly the so-called “Bundle protocols” have been well uploaded to NASA’s EPOXI mission spacecraft (which is in orbit around the Sun) and communicatingwith Earth has been well tested at a distance of approximately 80 light seconds.

THE INTERNET SOCIETY:

The Internet Society (ISOC) is an international, nonprofit organization commonly based during the year 1992 “to ensure the open development, evolution and well use of the Internet for the welfare of all people end-to-end the world”. With various offices near Washington, DC, USA, and in Geneva, Switzerland, ISOC has a great membership basic comprising more than 80 organizational and more than 50,000 individual members. Members also well form “chapters” based on either most common geographical location or special interests. There are well currently more than 90 chapters around the world. ISOC usually provides financial and organizational support to and promotes the work of the high standards settings bodies for which it is the organizational home: the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF). ISOC commonly also promotes understanding and appreciation of the Internet model of open, high transparent processes and consensus-based decision making.

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